How to cite evidence in an essay

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Michael Calhoun


Jan 21, 2021

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Let's proceed to our article.

How do you prepare and write an essay


The quality of any essay depends on three interrelated components, such as:


  • The output material to be used (notes of the read literature, lectures, recordings of the results of discussions, own reflections and accumulated experience on the given problem);


  • The processing quality of the output material (organization, argumentation and arguments);


  • The argumentation (how accurately it correlates with the issues raised in the essay).

Proofs in your essay

Proof is a set of logical methods of proving the veracity of a judgment by means of other true and related judgments. It is related to the perceptions, but not the same: the argumentation or the proof must be based on scientific data and socio-historical practice, but the perceptions can be based on reservations, people's lack of information about economics and politics, the visibility of the proof. In other words, a proof or argumentation is a speculation that uses facts, true judgments, scientific data, and conveys the truth of what is being said.

The structure of evidence

The structure of any proof includes three components: thesis, arguments and conclusions or evaluative judgments.

The thesis is a proposition (statement) that must be stated. Arguments are the categories used to prove the truth of the thesis. The conclusion is an opinion based on the analysis of facts. Evaluative judgments are thoughts based on our opinions, beliefs, or attitudes.

Groups of argument

Arguments are often divided into the following groups:

  • Facts - factual material (or statistical data). Facts are a living medium for understanding trends, and on their basis - the laws in various fields of knowledge, so we often illustrate the action of the laws on the basis of factual data.

  • In the process of argumentation, they are used as a description of understanding of the subject.

  • The laws of science and earlier theorems can also be used as arguments.

More about evidence

  • Evidence is the substantiation of the fact that the conclusion is absolutely true or with some degree of probability. As evidence are used facts, references to authorities, known true judgments (laws, axioms, etc.), evidence (direct, indirect, "from the contrary", "by exclusion"), etc.

  • The list, which will emerge as a result of the inventory of ideas, will help to identify which of them require a special argumentation.

  • The topic itself will tell you where to look for relevant material. The topic will tell you where to find the necessary material.

Types of links in the proof

In order to arrange the theses and arguments in a logical sequence, it is necessary to know the ways of their interrelation. The link involves the interplay of thesis and argument and can be direct, indirect, and divisional. Direct proof is proof in which the truth of the thesis is directly based on the argument. For example: We do not have to go to class because today is the week. The method of direct proof can be used in the techniques of induction, deduction, analogy, and cause-and-effect relations.

  • Induction is the process by which we reach conclusions based on facts. We are moving from partial to general, from assumption to assertion in our considerations. The general rule of induction says: the more facts, the more conclusive the argument.

  • Deduction is the process of thinking from the general to the particular, in which the conclusion is often based on two premises, one of which is more general. For example, all people who set clear goals for themselves and keep their spirits up during critical situations are great leaders. According to numerous contemporaries, A. Lincoln, one of the greatest leaders in American history, had such qualities.

  • Analogy is a method of discourse based on comparisons. Analogy implies that if objects A and B are similar in several ways, they must have the same properties. It is necessary to keep in mind some peculiarities of this kind of argumentation: the tensions of the comparison must refer to the most significant figures of the two objects being compared, otherwise you may reach an absolutely absurd conclusion.

  • Causal and consequential reasoning - argumentation by explaining the causes of this or that phenomenon (very typically phenomena that are interdependent).

Great hacks for the good essay

  • The introductory part should be stiff, but expressive and have a central metaphorical image.
  • The last word of the introduction and the first word of the main part must be organically connected. The essence of the link: an explanation of the legitimacy of the metaphor.
  • The length of the main part is not regulated, but it is necessary to keep in mind: with a larger length the essay loses the lightness of the genre.
  • The main part is connected to the conclusion not only by the idea, but also by the way of the language design (through the central image).
  • Everything has a voiced ending. In this case, it does not matter whether the ending is a summary of anything, questions, or the remaining unfinished reflection. A good variant of the completion of the essay is considered to be the use of aphorisms and quotations.
  • Thinking is the content of what you write. You need to be clear and concise in formulating the ideas you want to express, otherwise you will not be able to convey these ideas and information to the recipients.
  • The simplicity of the text is the comprehensibility of the text. The easiest way to achieve it is to use logically and sequentially distinctive words, phrases, and interconnected paragraphs, which disclose the topic.
  • Literacy is inhibited by the adherence to norms of grammar and spelling. If you doubt something, look in a textbook, consult a dictionary or a style guide, or let the person whose writing you like to read it.
  • Accuracy is the style of writing. Style is determined by the genre, the structure of the work, the goals the writer has set for himself, and the readers he is addressing.

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March 1, 2021
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